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Fakta och myter – Vitamin B12 (kobalamin)

S. J. Moore, A. D. Lawrence, R. Biedendieck, E. Deery, S. Frank, M. J. Howard, S. E. J. Rigby, M. J. Warren. Elucidation of the anaerobic pathway for the corrin component of cobalamin (vitamin B12). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2013; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1308098110 Länk

Watson WS, Vallance BD, Muir MM, Hume R. The effect of megadose ascorbic acid ingestion on the absorption and retention of vitamin B12 in man. Scott Med J. 1982 Jul;27(3):240-3. 

Dagnelie PC, van Staveren WA, van den Berg H. Vitamin B-12 from algae appears not to be bioavailable. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Mar;53(3):695-7. 

Herbert V. Vitamin B-12: plant sources, requirements, and assay. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988 Sep;48(3 Suppl):852-8. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/48.3.852.

Patterson N, Richter DJ, Gnerre S, Lander ES, Reich D. Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees. Nature. 2006 Jun 29;441(7097):1103-8. Epub 2006 May 17.

Zhang Y, Hodgson NW, Trivedi MS, et al. Decreased Brain Levels of Vitamin B12 in Aging, Autism and Schizophrenia. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146797. Published 2016 Jan 22. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146797.

Carmel R. A new case of deficiency of the R binder for cobalamin, with observations on minor cobalamin-binding proteins in serum and saliva. Blood. 1982 Jan;59(1):152-6.

Staff NP, Windebank AJ. Peripheral neuropathy due to vitamin deficiency, toxins, and medications. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2014 Oct;20(5 Peripheral Nervous System Disorders):1293-306. doi: 10.1212/01.CON.0000455880.06675.5a. 

Miyamoto E, Tanioka Y, Nakao T, Barla F, Inui H, Fujita T et al. Purification and characterization of a corrinoid-compound in an edible cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae as a nutritional supplementary food. J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 13;54(25):9604-7.

Michael R. Dobbs (ed). Clinical Neurotoxicology. Philadelphia, Elsevier; 2009. 

Watanabe F, Takenaka S, Kittaka-Katsura H, Ebara S, Miyamoto E. Characterization and bioavailability of vitamin B12-compounds from edible algae. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2002 Oct;48(5):325-31.

O'Leary F, Samman S. Vitamin B12 in health and disease. Nutrients. 2010 Mar;2(3):299-316. doi: 10.3390/nu2030299. Epub 2010 Mar 5.

Pawlak R, Lester SE, Babatunde T. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul;70(7):866. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.81.

Paul C, Brady DM. Comparative Bioavailability and Utilization of Particular Forms of B12 Supplements With Potential to Mitigate B12-related Genetic Polymorphisms. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2017 Feb;16(1):42-49.

Huan Fang, Jie Kang, Dawei Zhang. Microbial production of vitamin B12: a review and future perspectives. Microb Cell Fact. 2017; 16: 15. Published online 2017 Jan 30. doi: 10.1186/s12934-017-0631-y  

Halsted JA, Caroll J, Rubert S. Serum and tissue concentration of vitamin B12 in certain pathologic states. N Engl J Med. 1959 Mar 19;260(12):575-80.

Kornerup LS, Fedosov SN, Juul CB, Greibe E, Heegaard CW, Nexo E. Tissue distribution of oral vitamin B12 is influenced by B12 status and B12 form: an experimental study in rats. Eur J Nutr. 2018 Jun;57(4):1459-1469. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1424-0. Epub 2017 Mar 20. 

Li S, Sun L, Qi L, Jia Y, Cui Z, Wang Z, Li F, Zhao X. Effect of high homocysteine level on the severity of coronary heart disease and prognosis after stent implantation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2020 Mar 18. doi: 10.1097/FJC.0000000000000829. 

Esnafoglu E, Ozturan DD. The relationship of severity of depression with homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin D levels in children and adolescents. Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2020 Apr 18. doi: 10.1111/camh.12387. 

Liampas I, Siokas V, Aloizou A, Tsouris Z, Metaxia D, Aslanidou P, Brotis A, Dardiotis E. Pyridoxine, folate and cobalamin for migraine: A Systematic Review. Acta Neurol Scand. 2020 Apr 12. doi: 10.1111/ane.13251.

Paul C, Brady DM. Comparative Bioavailability and Utilization of Particular Forms of B12 Supplements With Potential to Mitigate B12-related Genetic Polymorphisms. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2017 Feb;16(1):42-49.

Chen S, Honda T, Ohara T, Hata J, Hirakawa Y, Yoshida D et al. Serum homocysteine and risk of dementia in Japan. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2020 May;91(5):540-546. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2019-322366. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Cao L, Guo Y, Zhu Z. Effects of hyperhomocysteinemia on ischemic cerebral small vessel disease and analysis of inflammatory mechanisms. Int J Neurosci. 2020 Apr 1:1-8. doi: 10.1080/00207454.2020.1744597.

You ZP, Zhang YZ, Zhang YL, Shi L, Shi K. Homocysteine induces oxidative stress to damage trabecular meshwork cells. Exp Ther Med. 2018 May;15(5):4379-4385. doi: 10.3892/etm.2018.5961. 

Varga EA, Sturm AC, Misita CP & Moll S. Homocysteine and MTHFR Mutations: Relation to Thrombosis and Coronary Artery Disease. Circulation. 2005; 111:e289-e293.

Dean L. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency. Medical Genetics Summaries. NCBI; Last updated October 27, 2016

Glutamin – tarmens bästa vän

[1] J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):2045S-2049S. Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training. Gleeson M.

[2] JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2003 Mar-Apr;27(2):116-22. Glutamine preserves cardiomyocyte viability and enhances recovery of contractile function after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

[3] Life Sci. 2007 Apr 24;80(20):1846-50. Epub 2007 Feb 22. Association between glutamine extraction and release of citrulline and glycine by the human small intestine. Fujita T, Yanaga K.

[4] Acta Physiol Scand. 2001 May;172(1):1-10. Glutathione deficiency intensifies ischaemia-reperfusion induced cardiac dysfunction and oxidative stress. Leichtweis S, Ji LL.

[5] Nutrition. 2002 Feb;18(2):123-6. Is glutamine beneficial in ischemic heart disease? Khogali SE, Pringle SD, Weryk BV, Rennie MJ.

[6] Nutrition. 2011 Sep;27(9):938-42. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.08.025. Epub 2010 Dec 3. A randomized cross-over study of the metabolic and hormonal responses following two preoperative conditioning drinks.

[7] Biochem J. 1983 Jun 15;212(3):835-42. Glutamine metabolism in lymphocytes of the rat. Ardawi MS, Newsholme EA.

[8] FEBS Lett. 1988 Sep 12;237(1-2):133-6. Inhibition of protein breakdown by glutamine in perfused rat skeletal muscle. MacLennan PA, Smith K, Weryk B, Watt PW, Rennie MJ.

[9] FEBS Lett. 1987 May 4;215(1):187-91. A positive relationship between protein synthetic rate and intracellular glutamine concentration in perfused rat skeletal muscle. MacLennan PA, Brown RA, Rennie MJ.

[10] American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and MetabolismPublished 1 October 1996Vol. 271no. E748-E754. Effect of glutamine on leucine metabolism in humans R. G. Hankard , M. W. Haymond , D. Darmaun

[11] Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008 Jun;103(3):289-94. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0702-1. Epub 2008 Mar 5. Effects of exercise on leukocyte death: prevention by hydrolyzed whey protein enriched with glutamine dipeptide. Cury-Boaventura MF, Levada-Pires AC, Folador A, Gorjão R, Alba-Loureiro TC, Hirabara SM, Peres FP, Silva PR, Curi R, Pithon-Curi TC.

[12] Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 May;278(5):E817-24. Effect of enteral glutamine on leucine, phenylalanine and glutamine metabolism in hypercortisolemic subjects. 

[13] Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004 Sep;287(3):G726-33. Epub 2004 May 6. Glutamine regulates Caco-2 cell tight junction proteins. Li N, Lewis P, Samuelson D, Liboni K, Neu J.

[14] Pediatr Res. 2002 Sep;52(3):430-6. Glutamine supplementation and deprivation: effect on artificially reared rat small intestinal morphology. Potsic B, Holliday N, Lewis P, Samuelson D, DeMarco V, Neu J.

[15] J. Nutr. July 1, 2003 vol. 133 no. 7 2176-2179 . Glutamine and Barrier Function in Cultured Caco-2 Epithelial Cell Monolayers Vincent G. DeMarco, Nan Li, Justin Thomas, Christopher M. West, and Josef Neu

[16] Internet http://www.dailyperricone.com/2009/01/targeted-foods-and-supplements-for-healthy-slimming/

[17] Barchitta M, Maugeri A, Favara G, Magnano San Lio R, Evola G, Agodi A, Basile G. Nutrition and Wound Healing: An Overview Focusing on the Beneficial Effects of Curcumin. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 5;20(5).

MegaFlora Kids – Probiotika

Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, Rogers TR, Want S, Rajkumar C et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.BMJ. 2007 Jul 14;335(7610):80. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

D'Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2002 Jun 8;324(7350):1361.

Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F, Canducci F, Candelli M, Ojetti V et al. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Feb;15(2):163-9.

Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Nista EC, Bartolozzi F, Capelli G, Gasbarrini G et al. Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Aug;16(8):1461-7.

Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82.

Iva Hojsak. Probiotics in Children: What Is the Evidence? Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr. 2017 Sep; 20(3): 139–146.

MegaFlora – Probiotika

Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, Rogers TR, Want S, Rajkumar C et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.BMJ. 2007 Jul 14;335(7610):80. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

D'Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2002 Jun 8;324(7350):1361.

Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F, Canducci F, Candelli M, Ojetti V et al. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Feb;15(2):163-9.

Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Nista EC, Bartolozzi F, Capelli G, Gasbarrini G et al. Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Aug;16(8):1461-7.

Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82.

Jean-Claude Rambaud (ed.), Jean-Paul Buts (ed.), Gerard Corthier (ed.), Bernard Flourie (ed.). Gut Microflora: Digestive Physiology and Pathology. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext; 2006.

Ohman L, Simrén M. Pathogenesis of IBS: role of inflammation, immunity and neuroimmune interactions. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010 Mar;7(3):163-73.

MegaFlora Women – Probiotika

Bertuccini L, Russo R, Iosi F, Superti F. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus on bacterial vaginal pathogens. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2017;30(2):163‐167. doi:10.1177/0394632017697987

Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, Rogers TR, Want S, Rajkumar C et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.BMJ. 2007 Jul 14;335(7610):80. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

D'Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2002 Jun 8;324(7350):1361.

Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F, Canducci F, Candelli M, Ojetti V et al. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Feb;15(2):163-9.

Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Nista EC, Bartolozzi F, Capelli G, Gasbarrini G et al. Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Aug;16(8):1461-7.

Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82.

Jean-Claude Rambaud (ed.), Jean-Paul Buts (ed.), Gerard Corthier (ed.), Bernard Flourie (ed.). Gut Microflora: Digestive Physiology and Pathology. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext; 2006.

Ohman L, Simrén M. Pathogenesis of IBS: role of inflammation, immunity and neuroimmune interactions. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010 Mar;7(3):163-73.

MegaFlora for Baby & Me – Probiotika

Slykerman RF, Hood F, Wickens K, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Pregnancy on Postpartum Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety: A Randomised Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial. EBioMedicine. 2017;24:159‐165. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.09.013

Wickens K, Barthow C, Mitchell EA, et al. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in early life on the cumulative prevalence of allergic disease to 11 years. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2018;29(8):808‐814. doi:10.1111/pai.12982

Wickens KL, Barthow CA, Murphy R, et al. Early pregnancy probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 may reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(6):804‐813. doi:10.1017/S0007114517000289

Edwards SM, Cunningham SA, Dunlop AL, Corwin EJ. The Maternal Gut Microbiome During Pregnancy. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2017;42(6):310‐317. doi:10.1097/NMC.0000000000000372

Bertuccini L, Russo R, Iosi F, Superti F. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus on bacterial vaginal pathogens. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2017;30(2):163‐167. doi:10.1177/0394632017697987

Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, Rogers TR, Want S, Rajkumar C et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial.BMJ. 2007 Jul 14;335(7610):80. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

D'Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ. 2002 Jun 8;324(7350):1361.

Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F, Canducci F, Candelli M, Ojetti V et al. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Feb;15(2):163-9.

Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Nista EC, Bartolozzi F, Capelli G, Gasbarrini G et al. Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Aug;16(8):1461-7.

Sazawal S, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82.

Jean-Claude Rambaud (ed.), Jean-Paul Buts (ed.), Gerard Corthier (ed.), Bernard Flourie (ed.). Gut Microflora: Digestive Physiology and Pathology. Paris: John Libbey Eurotext; 2006.

Ohman L, Simrén M. Pathogenesis of IBS: role of inflammation, immunity and neuroimmune interactions. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010 Mar;7(3):163-73.

Astaxantin - Superämne för mer än bara vacker hud

[1] J Nutr Biochem. 2010 May;21(5):381-9. Astaxanthin protects mitochondrial redox state and functional integrity against oxidative stress. Wolf AM, Asoh S, Hiranuma H, Ohsawa I, Iio K, Satou A, Ishikura M, Ohta S.Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Development and Aging Sciences, Nippon Medical School, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19423317

[2] Exp Dermatol. 2012 Jul;21 Suppl 1:11-7. Astaxanthin attenuates the UVB-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-8 in human keratinocytes by interrupting MSK1 phosphorylation in a ROS depletion-independent manner. Terazawa S, Nakajima H, Shingo M, Niwano T, Imokawa G. School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan. kimura@nagahp.jp http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22626465

[3] Asian J Androl. 2005 Sep;7(3):257-62. Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial. Comhaire FH, El Garem Y, Mahmoud A, Eertmans F, Schoonjans F. Ghent University Hospital, Department of Medical and Urological Andrology, 9k12 IE, De Pintelaan, 185, B 9000, Gent, Belgium. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16110353

[4] Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):355-64. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Kidd P. University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22214255

[5] J Atheroscler Thromb. 2000;7(4):216-22. Inhibition of low-density lipoprotein oxidation by astaxanthin. Iwamoto T, Hosoda K, Hirano R, Kurata H, Matsumoto A, Miki W, Kamiyama M, Itakura H, Yamamoto S, Kondo K. National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11521685

[6] Br J Nutr. 2011 Jun;105(11):1563-71. Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. Nakagawa K, Kiko T, Miyazawa T, Carpentero Burdeos G, Kimura F, Satoh A, Miyazawa T. Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 981-8555, Japan.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21276280

[7] Atherosclerosis. 2010 Apr;209(2):520-3. Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, Tomono Y, Koikeda T, Tsukahara H, Tada N. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jikei University Kashiwa Hospital, Chiba, Japan.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19892350

[8] J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012 Aug;52(4):382-92. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in elite young soccer players. Djordjevic B, Baralic I, Kotur-Stevuljevic J, Stefanovic A, Ivanisevic J, Radivojevic N, Andjelkovic M, Dikic N. Institute for Bromatology, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192897

[9] Int Immunopharmacol. 2011 Dec;11(12):2220-6. Impact of the carotenoid astaxanthin on phagocytic capacity and ROS/RNS production of human neutrophils treated with free fatty acids and high glucose. Guerra BA, Otton R. Postgraduate Program-Health Sciences-CBS, Cruzeiro do Sul University, Sao Paulo, SP, 03342000, Brazil. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22008307

[10] Toxicol In Vitro. 2011 Oct;25(7):1448-56. Oxidative stress in human lymphocytes treated with fatty acid mixture: role of carotenoid astaxanthin. Campoio TR, Oliveira FA, Otton R. Postgraduate Program - Health Sciences - CBS, Cruzeiro do Sul University, 03342000 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

[11] Acta Biochim Pol. 2012;59(1):43-7. Cosmetic benefits of astaxanthin on humans subjects. Tominaga K, Hongo N, Karato M, Yamashita E. Fuji Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., Kamiichi, Toyama, Japan.

Artikelkälla: http://www.wellnessresources.com/health/articles/astaxanthin_a_premium_cell_defense_nutrient/

Quercetin skyddar mot vanligt bakteriegift

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Oct;8(5):425-8. [Protective effects of recombinant intestinal trefoil factor against intestinal injuries induced by endotoxin in young rats]. Li J, Xu LF, Sun M, Li Q, Gao H, Jiang WG.

Res Exp Med (Berl). 1986;186(1):61-9. Lipopolysaccharide-induced colitis in rabbits. Hotta T, Yoshida N, Yoshikawa T, Sugino S, Kondo M.

Acta Med Okayama. 1978 Jul;32(3):207-16. A study of endotoxemia in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. II. Experimental study. Aoki K.

Transplant Proc. 2006 Jul-Aug;38(6):1815-7. The role of dendritic cells in the gastrointestinal field effect. Koscielny A, Boerner T, Wehner S, Kurts C, Kalff JC.

Arch Surg. 1995 Jan;130(1):53-8. The effect of endotoxin on intestinal mucosal permeability to bacteria in vitro. Go LL, Healey PJ, Watkins SC, Simmons RL, Rowe MI.

J Clin Invest. 1988 Nov;82(5):1714-21. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal microvascular lesions leading to acute diarrhea. Mathan VI, Penny GR, Mathan MM, Rowley D.

Hepatology. 2009 May;49(5):1545-53. doi: 10.1002/hep.22847. Fibrin accumulation plays a critical role in the sensitization to lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury caused by ethanol in mice. Beier JI, Luyendyk JP, Guo L, von Montfort C, Staunton DE, Arteel GE.

Thromb Res. 2013 Jun;131(6):e270-3. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2013.03.002. Epub 2013 Apr 6. Effects of quercetin on LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in rabbits. Yu PX, Zhou QJ, Zhu WW, Wu YH, Wu LC, Lin X, Chen MH, Qiu BT.

Fem tips för att inte bränna huden i sommar!

Brian J. Hall MD (ed.), John C. Hall MD (ed.). Sauer’s Manual of Skin Diseases. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010.

Pilkington SM, Watson RE, Nicolaou A, Rhodes LE. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: photoprotective macronutrients. Experimental Dermatology. 2011 Jul;20(7):537-43.

Liu G, Bibus DM, Bode AM, Ma WY, Holman RT, Dong Z. Omega 3 but not omega 6 fatty acids inhibit AP-1 activity and cell transformation in JB6 cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2001 Jun 19;98(13):7510-5.

Lester Packer (ed.), Maret G Traber (r.ed), Klaus Kraemer (ed.), Balz Frei (ed.). The Antioxidant Vitamins C and E. Champaign: AOCS Press; 2002.

Enrique Cadenas (ed.), Lester Packer (ed.). Handbook of Antioxidants. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2002.

Rodríguez-Yanes E, Juarranz Á, Cuevas J, Gonzalez S, Mallol J. Polypodium leucotomos decreases UV-induced epidermal cell proliferation and enhances p53 expression and plasma antioxidant capacity in hairless mice. Experimental Dermatology. 2012 Aug;21(8):638-40.

Poljšak B, Dahmane R. Free radicals and extrinsic skin aging. Dermatology Research and Practice. 2012;2012:135206.

Rao AR, Sindhuja HN, Dharmesh SM, Sankar KU, Sarada R, Ravishankar GA. Effective inhibition of skin cancer, tyrosinase, and antioxidative properties by astaxanthin and astaxanthin esters from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2013 Apr 24;61(16):3842-51.

Maoka T, Tokuda H, Suzuki N, Kato H, Etoh H. Anti-oxidative, anti-tumor-promoting, and anti-carcinogensis activities of nitroastaxanthin and nitrolutein, the reaction products of astaxanthin and lutein with peroxynitrite. Marine Drugs. 2012 Jun;10(6):1391-9.

Bens G. Sunscreens. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2014;810:429-63.

Lídia Palma, Liliana Tavares Marques, Julia Bujan, Luís Monteiro Rodrigues. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics
2015; 8: 413–421.

Lyons NM1, O'Brien NM. Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. J Dermatol Sci. 2002 Oct;30(1):73-84.

David G. Hoel,a Marianne Berwick,b Frank R. de Gruijl,c and Michael F. Holick D. The risks and benefits of sun exposure 2016. Dermatoendocrinol. 2016 Jan-Dec; 8(1): e1248325.

Alzheimers – näring och livsstil vid kognitiva sjukdomar

Alzheimer’s Association. 2015 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimers Dement. 2015;11(3):332-384. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2015.02.003

Demenssjukdomarnas Samhällskostnader i Sverige 2012. Socialstyrelsen. 

Calsolaro V, Edison P. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: Current evidence and future directions. Alzheimers Dement. 2016;12(6):719-732. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2016.02.010

Moore E, Mander A, Ames D, Carne R, Sanders K, Watters D. Cognitive impairment and vitamin B12: a review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012;24(4):541-556. doi:10.1017/S1041610211002511

Boston PF, McKirdy SJ, Al-Turki MA, Barker ME, Russell JM. Vitamin B12 and folate levels in progression of Alzheimer's disease - a short report. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2020;24(1):68-70. doi:10.1080/13651501.2019.1681457

Athanasopoulos D, Karagiannis G, Tsolaki M. Recent Findings in Alzheimer Disease and Nutrition Focusing on Epigenetics. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(5):917-927. Published 2016 Sep 15. doi:10.3945/an.116.012229

Yan L, Xie Y, Satyanarayanan SK, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote brain-to-blood clearance of β-Amyloid in a mouse model with Alzheimer's disease. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;85:35-45. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2019.05.033

Morgese MG, Tucci P, Mhillaj E, et al. Lifelong Nutritional Omega-3 Deficiency Evokes Depressive-Like State Through Soluble Beta Amyloid. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54(3):2079-2089. doi:10.1007/s12035-016-9809-2

Connor T, Rumsey R. Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegeneration, and diet: An interview with neuroscience researcher Dr. Dale Bredesen (part I, II & III). The Paleo Diet web page

Fasano A. All disease begins in the (leaky) gut: role of zonulin-mediated gut permeability in the pathogenesis of some chronic inflammatory diseases. F1000Res. 2020;9:F1000 Faculty Rev-69. Published 2020 Jan 31. doi:10.12688/f1000research.20510.1

Y. Wu et al., “Microglia and amyloid precursor protein coordinate control of transient Candida cerebritis with memory deficits,” Nat Commun, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 58, 2019, doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07991-4.

Bredesen DE, John V. Next generation therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. EMBO Mol Med. 2013;5(6):795-798. doi:10.1002/emmm.201202307

Ashley C. Bolte, Arun B. Dutta, Mariah E. Hurt, Igor Smirnov, Michael A. Kovacs, Celia A. McKee, Hannah E. Ennerfelt, Daniel Shapiro, Bao H. Nguyen, Elizabeth L. Frost, Catherine R. Lammert, Jonathan Kipnis, John R. Lukens. Meningeal lymphatic dysfunction exacerbates traumatic brain injury pathogenesis. Nature Communications, 2020; 11

Alexandra J. Weigand, Mark W. Bondi, Kelsey R. Thomas, Noll L. Campbell, Douglas R. Galasko, David P. Salmon, Daniel Sewell, James B. Brewer, Howard H. Feldman, Lisa Delano-Wood. Association of anticholinergic medication and AD biomarkers with incidence of MCI among cognitively normal older adults. Neurology, 2020; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010643

Joseph R. Winer, Bryce A. Mander, Samika Kumar, Mark Reed, Suzanne L. Baker, William J. Jagust, Matthew P. Walker. Sleep Disturbance Forecasts β-Amyloid Accumulation across Subsequent Years. Current Biology, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.08.017

Hur, J., Frost, G.R., Wu, X. et al. The innate immunity protein IFITM3 modulates γ-secretase in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature, 2020 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2681-2 

Alzheimer's Disease International. Hemsida.

Candida - den lömska jästsvampen

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Hsu JL, Ruoss SJ, Bower ND, Lin M, Holodniy M, Stevens DA. Diagnosing invasive fungal disease in critically ill patients.Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011;37(4):277-312.

Bongomin F, Gago S, Oladele RO, Denning DW. Global and Multi-National Prevalence of Fungal Diseases-Estimate Precision. J Fungi (Basel). 2017 Oct 18;3(4):57. 

Kim J, Sudbery P. Candida albicans, a major human fungal pathogen. J Microbiol. 2011;49(2):171-177.

Tampakakis E, Peleg AY, Mylonakis E. Interaction of Candida albicans with an intestinal pathogen, Salmonella entericaserovarTyphimurium.Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8(5):732-737.

NIH. Systemic candidiasis. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/1076/systemic-candidiasis

Hsu JL, Ruoss SJ, Bower ND, Lin M, Holodniy M, Stevens DA. Diagnosing invasive fungal disease in critically ill patients.Crit Rev Microbiol. 2011;37(4):277-312.

Tani N, Rahnasto-Rilla M, Wittekindt C, et al. Antifungal activities of novel non-azole molecules against S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;47(1):270-277.

Sobel J, Candida vulvovaginitis. In: UpToDate, Barbieri R., Barss V. (Eds), UpToDate, Waltham, MA, 2012.

Relloso M, Aragoneses-Fenoll L, Lasarte S, et al. Estradiol impairs the Th17 immune response against Candida albicans. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;91(1):159-165.

Kumamoto CA. Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization.CurrOpinMicrobiol. 2011;14(4):386-391. 

Chami N, Bennis S, Chami F, Aboussekhra A, Remmal A. Study of anticandidal activity of carvacrol and eugenol in vitro and in vivo. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005 Apr;20(2):106-11. 

Schulze J, Sonnenborn U. Yeasts in the gut: from commensals to infectious agents. DtschArztebl Int. 2009;106(51-52):837-842.

Rodrigues CF, Rodrigues ME, Henriques M. Candida sp. Infections in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. J Clin Med. 2019 Jan 10;8(1):76

Truss CO. Tissue Injury Induced By Candida Albicans Mental and Neurologic Manifestations. ORTHOMOLECULAR PSYCHIATRY, VOLUME 7, NUMBER 1, 1978, Pp. 17-37

Schulze J, Sonnenborn U. Yeasts in the gut: from commensals to infectious agents. DtschArztebl Int. 2009;106(51-52):837-842.

Berstad A, Hauso O, Berstad K, Berstad JER. From IBS to ME - The dysbiotic march hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2020 Feb 26;140:109648. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109648. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32126475.

Evengård B, Gräns H, Wahlund E, Nord CE. Increased number of Candida albicans in the faecal microflora of chronic fatigue syndrome patients during the acute phase of illness. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007 Dec;42(12):1514-5.

Gaby A. Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH. Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2011.

Crook W.The Yeast Connection: A Medical Breakthrough. Vintage Books; Upd Rev Su edition (September 12, 1986)

Erdogan A, Rao SS. Small intestinal fungal overgrowth. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2015 Apr;17(4):16. 

Yang AM, Inamine T, Hochrath K, Chen P, Wang L, Llorente C, Bluemel S, Hartmann P, Xu J, Koyama Y, Kisseleva T, Torralba MG, Moncera K, Beeri K, Chen CS, Freese K, Hellerbrand C, Lee SM, Hoffman HM, Mehal WZ, Garcia-Tsao G, Mutlu EA, Keshavarzian A, Brown GD, Ho SB, Bataller R, Stärkel P, Fouts DE, Schnabl B. Intestinal fungi contribute to development of alcoholic liver disease. J Clin Invest. 2017 Jun 30;127(7):2829-2841. 

Christensson B, Larsson L. Arabinitolkvot i urin ger tidig diagnostik av candidainfektion. Läkartidningen 48/2008.

Donders GG, Bellen G, Mendling W. Management of recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis as a chronic illness. GynecolObstet Invest. 2010;70(4):306-321.

Weig M, Werner E, Frosch M, Kasper H. Limited effect of refined carbohydrate dietary supplementation on colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of healthy subjects by Candida albicans.Am J ClinNutr. 1999;69(6):1170-1173.

Man A, Ciurea CN, Pasaroiu D, Savin AI, Toma F, Sular F, Santacroce L, Mare A. New perspectives on the nutritional factors influencing growth rate of Candida albicans in diabetics. An in vitro study. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2017 Sep;112(9):587-592. 

Curtis L. Better hospital nutrition needed to reduce morbidity and mortality from fungal infections: Crit Care Med. 2010 Dec;38(12):2428-9; author reply 2429.

Jeziorek M, Frej-Mądrzak M, Choroszy-Król I. The influence of diet on gastrointestinal Candida spp. colonization and the susceptibility of Candida spp. to antifungal drugs. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2019;70(2):195-200. 

da Silva AR, de Andrade Neto JB, da Silva CR, Campos Rde S, Costa Silva RA, Freitas DD, do Nascimento FB, de Andrade LN, Sampaio LS, Grangeiro TB, Magalhães HI, Cavalcanti BC, de Moraes MO, Nobre Júnior HV. Berberine Antifungal Activity in Fluconazole-Resistant Pathogenic Yeasts: Action Mechanism Evaluated by Flow Cytometry and Biofilm Growth Inhibition in Candida spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 May 23;60(6):3551-7. 

Jafri H, Ahmad I. Thymus vulgaris essential oil and thymol inhibit biofilms and interact synergistically with antifungal drugs against drug resistant strains of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. J Mycol Med. 2020 Apr;30(1):100911. 

Bhat V, Sharma SM, Shetty V, Shastry CS, Rao CV, Shenoy S, Saha S, Balaji S. Characterization of Herbal Antifungal Agent, Origanum vulgare against Oral Candida spp. Isolated from Patients with Candida-Associated Denture Stomatitis: An In vitro Study. Contemp Clin Dent. 2018 Jun;9(Suppl 1):S3-S10. 

Bhattacharyya A, Sinha M, Singh H, Patel RS, Ghosh S, Sardana K, Ghosh S, Sengupta S. Mechanistic Insight Into the Antifungal Effects of a Fatty Acid Derivative Against Drug-Resistant Fungal Infections. Front Microbiol. 2020 Sep 8;11:2116. 

Omura Y, O'Young B, Jones M, Pallos A, Duvvi H, Shimotsuura Y. Caprylic acid in the effective treatment of intractable medical problems of frequent urination, incontinence, chronic upper respiratory infection, root canalled tooth infection, ALS, etc., caused by asbestos & mixed infections of Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori & cytomegalovirus with or without other microorganisms & mercury. AcupunctElectrother Res. 2011;36(1-2):19-64.

Shi D, Zhao Y, Yan H, Fu H, Shen Y, Lu G, Mei H, Qiu Y, Li D, Liu W. Antifungal effects of undecylenic acid on the biofilm formation of Candida albicans. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016 May;54(5):343-53.

Thorne Research. Undecylenic Acid. Alternative Medicine Review. 2002;7(1):68-70.

Khan MS, Malik A, Ahmad I. Anti-candidal activity of essential oils alone and in combination with amphotericin B or fluconazole against multi-drug resistant isolates of Candida albicans. Med Mycol. 2012;50(1):33-42.

Huang F, Song Y, Chen W, Liu Q, Wang Q, Liu W, Wang X, Wang W. Effects of Candida albicans infection on defense effector secretion by human oral mucosal epithelial cells. Arch Oral Biol. 2019 Jul;103:55-61.

Shevelev AB, La Porta N, Isakova EP, Martens S, Biryukova YK, Belous AS, Sivokhin DA, Trubnikova EV, Zylkova MV, Belyakova AV, Smirnova MS, Deryabina YI. In Vivo Antimicrobial and Wound-Healing Activity of Resveratrol, Dihydroquercetin, and Dihydromyricetin against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Pathogens. 2020 Apr 17;9(4):296. 

Mondello F, De Bernardis F, Girolamo A, Cassone A, Salvatore G. In vivo activity of terpinen-4-ol, the main bioactive component of MelaleucaalternifoliaCheel (tea tree) oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic Candida species. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:158.

Willcox M. An evaluation of tea tree oil as an alternative microbicide.Nurs Times. 2005;101(11):32-33.
Larson D, Jacob SE. Tea tree oil. Dermatitis. 2012;23(1):48-49.

Khodavandi A, Harmal NS, Alizadeh F, et al. Comparison between allicin and fluconazole in Candida albicans biofilm inhibition and in suppression of HWP1 gene expression. Phytomedicine. 2011;19(1):56-63.

Chung I, Kwon SH, Shim ST, Kyung KH. Synergistic antiyeast activity of garlic oil and allyl alcohol derived from alliin in garlic. J Food Sci. 2007;72(9):M437-440.

Bahadoran P, Rokni FK, Fahami F. Investigating the therapeutic effect of vaginal cream containing garlic and thyme compared to clotrimazole cream for the treatment of mycotic vaginitis. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2010;15(Suppl 1):343-349.

Reid G, Dols J, Miller W. Targeting the vaginal microbiota with probiotics as a means to counteract infections.CurrOpinClinNutrMetab Care. 2009 Nov;12(6):583-7.

Reid G, Beuerman D, Heinemann C, Bruce AW. Probiotic Lactobacillus dose required to restore and maintain a normal vaginal flora. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2001 Dec;32(1):37-41

Donders G, Bellen G, Oerlemans E, Claes I, Ruban K, Henkens T, Kiekens F, Lebeer S. The use of 3 selected lactobacillary strains in vaginal probiotic gel for the treatment of acute Candida vaginitis: a proof-of-concept study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Aug;39(8):1551-1558. doi: 10.1007/s10096-020-03868-x. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Är mättat fett farligt?

Artikeln är bland annat baserad på en artikel skriven av Mary Enig, PhD, and Sally Fallon: "The truth about saturated fats"

Castelli, William, Arch Int Med, Jul 1992, 152:7:1371-1372

Hubert H, et al, Circulation, 1983, 67:968; Smith, R and E R Pinckney, Diet, Blood Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review of the Literature, Vol 2, 1991, Vector Enterprises, Sherman Oaks, CA

Portillo, M P, et al, Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, Oct 1998, 22(10):947-9; Dulloo, A G, et al, Metabolism, Feb 1995, 44(2):273-9

Kabara, J J, The Pharmacological Effects of Lipids, The American Oil Chemists' Society, Champaign, IL, 1978, 1-14; Cohen, L A, et al, J Natl Cancer Inst ,1986, 77:43

Rose G, et al, Lancet, 1983, 1:1062-1065

"The Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial Results. I. Reduction in Incidence of Coronary Heart Disease," JAMA, 1984, 251:359

Kronmal, R, JAMA, April 12, 1985, 253:14:2091

Nutr Week, Mar 22, 1991, 21:12:2-3

Lasserre, M, et al, Lipids, 1985, 20:4:227

A general review of citations for problems with polyunsaturate consumption is found in Pinckney, Edward R, MD, and Cathey Pinckney, The Cholesterol Controversy, 1973, Sherbourne Press, Los Angeles, 127-131; Research indicating the correlation of polyunsaturates with learning problems is found in Harmon, D, et al, J Am Geriatrics Soc, 1976, 24:1: 292-8; Meerson, Z, et al, Bull Exp Bio Med, 1983, 96:9:70-71;Regarding weight gain, levels of linoleic acid in adipose tissues reflect the amount of linoleic acid in the diet. Valero, et al, Ann NutrMetabolism, Nov/Dec 1990, 34:6:323-327; Felton, C V, et al, Lancet, 1994, 344:1195-96

Pinckney, Edward R, MD, and Cathey Pinckney, The Cholesterol Controversy, 1973, Sherbourne Press, Los Angeles, 130; Enig, Mary G, Ph D, et al, Fed Proc, July 1978, 37:9:2215-2220

Machlin, I J, and A Bendich, FASEB Journal, 1987, 1:441-445

Kinsella, John E, Food Technology, October 1988, 134 ; Lasserre, M, et al, Lipids, 1985, 20:4:227

Horrobin, D F, Reviews in Pure and Applied Pharmacological Sciences, Vol 4, 1983, Freund Publishing House, 339-383; Devlin, T M, ed, Textbook of Biochemistry, 2nd Ed, 1982, Wiley Medical, 429-430; Fallon, Sally, and Mary G Enig, PhD, "Tripping Lightly Down the Prostaglandin Pathways," Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation Health Journal, 1996, 20:3:5-8

Okuyama, H, et al, Prog Lipid Res, 1997, 35:4:409-457

Simopoulos, A P, and Norman Salem, Am J Clin Nutr, 1992, 55:411-4

Watkins, B A, et al, "Importance of Vitamin E in Bone Formation and in Chrondrocyte Function" Purdue University, Lafayette, IN, AOCS Proceedings, 1996; Watkins, B A, and M F Seifert, "Food Lipids and Bone Health," Food Lipids and Health, R E McDonald and D B Min, eds, p 101, Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, NY, 1996

Dahlen, G H, et al, J Intern Med, Nov 1998, 244(5):417-24; Khosla, P, and K C Hayes, J Am Coll Nutr, 1996, 15:325-339; Clevidence, B A, et al, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 1997, 17:1657-1661

Kabara, J J, The Pharmacological Effects of Lipids, The American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign, IL, 1978, 1-14; Cohen, L A, et al, J Natl Cancer Inst, 1986, 77:43

Garg, M L, et al, FASEB Journal, 1988, 2:4:A852; Oliart Ros, R M, et al, "Meeting Abstracts," AOCS Proceedings, May 1998, 7, Chicago, IL

Lawson, L D and F Kummerow, Lipids, 1979, 14:501-503; Garg, M L, Lipids, Apr 1989, 24(4):334-9

Felton, C V, et al, Lancet, 1994, 344:1195

Prentice RL, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006; 295:629-42.

Beresford SA, Johnson KC, Ritenbaugh C, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006; 295:643-54.

Howard BV, Van Horn L, Hsia J, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006; 295:655-66.

Howard BV, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006; 295:39-49.

Michels KB, Willett WC. The women's health initiative: will it resolve the issues? Recent Results in Cancer Research. 1996; 140:295-305.

Prentice RL, Sheppard L. Dietary fat and cancer: consistency of the epidemiologic data, and disease prevention that may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption. Cancer Causes and Control. 1990; 1:81-97; discussion 99-109.

Prentice RL, Sheppard L. Dietary fat and cancer: rejoinder and discussion of research strategies. Cancer Causes and Control. 1991; 2:53-8.

Willett WC, Stampfer MJ. Dietary fat and cancer: another view? Cancer Causes and Control. 1990; 1:103-109.

Multiple risk factor intervention trial. Risk factor changes and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. JAMA. 1982; 248:1465-77.

Willett W. Nutritional epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Fallon, Sally, and Mary G Enig, PhD, "Diet and Heart Disease—Not What You Think," Consumers' Research, July 1996, 15-19

Antibiotika - börja med probiotika direkt

BMJ. 2007 Jul 14;335(7610):80. Epub 2007 Jun 29. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. Hickson M1, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, Rogers TR, Want S, Rajkumar C, Bulpitt CJ.

BMJ. 2002 Jun 8;324(7350):1361. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. D'Souza AL1, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Feb;15(2):163-9. The effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side-effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Armuzzi A1, Cremonini F, Bartolozzi F, Canducci F, Candelli M, Ojetti V, Cammarota G, Anti M, De Lorenzo A, Pola P, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Aug;16(8):1461-7. Meta-analysis: the effect of probiotic administration on antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Cremonini F1, Di Caro S, Nista EC, Bartolozzi F, Capelli G, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;6(6):374-82. Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Sazawal S1, Hiremath G, Dhingra U, Malik P, Deb S, Black RE.

CoQ10 – Åldras långsamt

[1] Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York.
Quinzii CM, López LC, Gilkerson RW, Dorado B, Coku J, Naini AB, Lagier-Tourenne C, Schuelke M, Salviati L, Carrozzo R, Santorelli F, Rahman S, Tazir M, Koenig M, Dimauro S, Hirano M. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and cell death correlate with level of CoQ10 deficiency. FASEB J. 2010 May

[2] Biochemistry Unit, Canterbury Health Laboratories, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Molyneux SL, Florkowski CM, Richards AM, Lever M, Young JM, George PM Coenzyme Q10; an adjunctive therapy for congestive heart failure? N Z Med J. 2009 October 30;122(1305):74-9.

[3] NutriGuard Research, 1051 Hermes Ave., Encinitas, CA 92024, USA.
McCarty MF. Practical prevention of cardiac remodeling and atrial fibrillation with full-spectrum antioxidant therapy and ancillary strategies. Med Hypotheses. 2010 August 75(2):141-7.

[4] Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University.
Tekle M, Gromadzinska J, Joksic G, Antic R, Nilsson R, Dallner G, Undén AL, Brismar K. Plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E in female populations from Poland, Serbia and Sweden. Environ Int. 2010 February 36(2):188-94.

[5] Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Munich, Germany
Kernt M, Hirneiss C, Neubauer AS, Ulbig MW, Kampik A. Coenzyme Q10 prevents human lens epithelial cells from light-induced apoptotic cell death by reducing oxidative stress and stabilizing BAX / Bcl-2 ratio. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010 May 88(3):e78-86.

[6] Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Al-Kadhmiya, PO Box 70027, Baghdad, Iraq.
Abdul-Rasheed OF, Farid YY, Al-Nasiri US. Coenzyme Q10 and oxidative stress markers in seminal plasma of Iraqi patients with male infertility. Saudi Med J. 2010 May ;31(5):501-6.

[7] Maes Clinics, Antwerp, Belgium.
Maes M, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Uytterhoeven M, Vrydags N, Bosmans E. Lower plasma Coenzyme Q10 in depression: a marker for treatment resistance and chronic fatigue in depression and a risk factor to cardiovascular disorder in that illness. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009 July 30(4):462-9.

[8] Dpto. Citología e Histología Normal y Patológica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.
Cordero MD, de Miguel M, Carmona-López I, Bonal P, Campa F, Moreno-Fernández AM. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in Fibromyalgia. MINIREVIEW. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010 July 31(2):169-73.

[9] Arnakkegårds alle 50, Vipperoed, Denmark 2: Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition, London Metropolitan University, London, UK
Hertz N, Lister RE. Improved survival in patients with end-stage cancer treated with coenzyme Q(10) and other antioxidants: a pilot study. J Int Med Res. 2009 December ;37(6):1961-71.

Soja – inte att rekommendera

[1] Rackis, Joseph J. et al., "The USDA trypsin inhibitor study. I. Background, objectives and procedural details", Qualification of Plant Foods in Human Nutrition, vol. 35, 1985.

[2] Van Rensburg et al., "Nutritional status of African populations predisposed to esophageal cancer", Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 4, 1983, pp. 206-216; Moser, P.B. et al., "Copper, iron, zinc and selenium dietary intake and status of Nepalese lactating women and their breastfed infants", American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 47:729-734, April 1988; Harland, B.F. et al., "Nutritional status and phytate: zinc and phytate X calcium: zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovovegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later",Journal of the American Dietetic Association 88:1562-1566, December 1988.

[3] 16. El Tiney, A.H., "Proximate Composition and Mineral and Phytate Contents of Legumes Grown in Sudan", Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (1989) 2:6778.

[4] Rackis, Joseph J. et al., "The USDA trypsin inhibitor study", ibid.

[5] Wallace, G.M., "Studies on the Processing and Properties of Soymilk", Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 22:526-535, October 1971.

[6] Rackis, et al., ibid., p. 22; "Evaluation of the Health Aspects of Soy Protein Isolates as Food Ingredients", prepared for FDA by Life Sciences Research Office, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20014), USA, Contract No. FDA 223-75-2004, 1979.

[7] Rackis, Joseph, J., "Biological and Physiological Factors in Soybeans", Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 51:161A-170A, January 1974.

[8] Rackis, Joseph J. et al., "The USDA trypsin inhibitor study", ibid.

[9] Torum, Benjamin, "Nutritional Quality of Soybean Protein Isolates: Studies in Children of Preschool Age", in Soy Protein and Human Nutrition, Harold L Wilcke et al. (eds), Academic Press, New York, 1979.

[10] Nagata C, Takatsuka N, Kurisu Y, Shimizu H; J Nutr 1998, 128:209-13.

Artikeln bygger på en artikel skriven av Sally Fallon och Mary G. Enig, PhD som publicerats på Holistics hemsida.

D-vitaminbrist hos för tidigt födda

Vitamin D status of early preterm infants and the effects of vitamin D intake during hospital stay
http://fn.bmj.com/content/99/2/F166.full

Deficit of vitamin D in pregnancy and growth and overweight in the offspring.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25189178

CDC: Babies Don't Get Enough Vitamin D
http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/news/20100322/cdc-babies-dont-get-enough-vitamin_d

D-vitaminbrist och torra ögon

Yoon SY, Bae SH, Shin YJ, Park SG, Hwang SH, Hyon JY, Wee WR. Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Associated with Dry Eye Syndrome. PLoS One. 2016 Jan 25;11(1):e0147847.

John Paul Ekwaru, Jennifer D. Zwicker, Michael F. Holick, Edward Giovannucci, and Paul J. Veugelers. The Importance of Body Weight for the Dose Response Relationship of Oral Vitamin D Supplementation and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Healthy Volunteers. PLoS One. 2014; 9(11): e111265.

Drincic AT, Armas LA, Van Diest EE, Heaney RP. Volumetric dilution, rather than sequestration best explains the low vitamin D status of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jul;20(7):1444-8. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.404.

Why does the Vitamin D Council recommend 5,000 IU/day? Vitamin D Council.

Depression, utmattade binjurar, kortisol och utbränd

Nussey S, Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2001. Chapter 4, The adrenal gland.

Boggero IA, Hostinar CE, Haak EA, Murphy MLM, Segerstrom SC. Psychosocial functioning and the cortisol awakening response: Meta-analysis, P-curve analysis, and evaluation of the evidential value in existing studies. Biol Psychol. 2017 Oct;129:207-230.

De Silva DC1, Wijesiriwardene B. Ceylon Med J. 2007 Sep;52(3):95-100. The adrenal glands and their functions.

Mello AF, Mello MF, Carpenter LL, Price LH.Braz. Update on stress and depression: the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. J Psychiatry. 2003 Oct;25(4):231-8. Epub 2004 Jan 15.

Head KA, Kelly GS. Nutrients and botanicals for treatment of stress: adrenal fatigue, neurotransmitter imbalance, anxiety, and restless sleep. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Jun;14(2):114-40.

Rico-Rosillo MG, Vega-Robledo GB. Sleep and immune system. Rev Alerg Mex. 2018 Apr-Jun;65(2):160-170.

Law R, Clow A. Stress, the cortisol awakening response and cognitive function. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2020;150:187-217.

Ryu KY, Roh The Effects of High Peripubertal Caffeine Exposure on the Adrenal Gland in Immature Male and Female Rats. J. Nutrients. 2019 Apr 26;11(5). pii: E951.

Prajapati SK, Dangi DS, Krishnamurthy S. Repeated caffeine administration aggravates post-traumatic stress disorder-like symptoms in rats. Physiol Behav. 2019 Nov 1;211:112666.

Meng H, Matthan NR, Ausman LM, Lichtenstein AH. Effect of prior meal macronutrient composition on postprandial glycemic responses and glycemic index and glycemic load value determinations. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;106:1246–56.

Leidy HJ, Ortinau LC, Douglas SM, Hoertel HA. Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:677–88.

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